2,000 people were killed in a massacre in Bor in present-day South Sudan, in 1991, by a militia group under the command of rebel leader Riek Machar. Many years later, in 2011, Machar became vice president  in the newly formed state of South Sudan. He is one of many examples in African politics of warlords who transform themselves into “democrats”.

To secure durable peace in these war-torn states, it is often necessary to integrate ex-military leaders into electoral politics. However, it is not uncommon that they continue to incite fear and hatred to succeed at the polls.

NAI researcher Anders Themnér

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