The Nordic Africa Institute


Discover Madagascar, a country at the crossroads of adversity,  struggling with the complexities of extreme poverty, vulnerability to climate hazards, and escalating migration patterns. 

Case Study – Madagascar

A country characterized by extreme poverty, dual exposure to both sudden and slow-onset climatic hazards, and facing increasing migration movements. It is well established that approximately 100,000 people move from rural to urban areas annually, mainly in search of work. Below average rainfall over the two years from July 2019 to June 2021 and high dependence upon rain-fed subsistence agriculture and pastoralism led to significant crop failures and severe famine-like conditions. While this drought is not attributed to human-induced climate change, this region may see reduced rainfall under future climate change, with increasing aridity during the early wet season. Following this, in early 2022, Madagascar was hit by a series of tropical cyclones (including Ana and Batsirai) - the strengths of which are expected to increase in the next decades due to climate change. Intense rainfall prior to the tropical cyclones led to flooding, and the affected communities were more vulnerable to the impacts of tropical cyclones. Storm Ana is estimated to have affected over 500,000 people including 72,000 people displaced, with the official death toll at around 58 people.