Rethinking gendered mobilities and immobilities
Panel organisers: Johanna Bergman Lodin, Department of Urban and Rural Development, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
In many cultures, social norms surrounding mobility in public spaces add to the physical constraints induced by underdeveloped mobility-scapes by particularly curtailing women’s freedom to move outside their residential compounds and beyond. Marital status, ethnicity and class are examples of other social identities negotiating individual mobility. Constrained mobility may also influence access to important resources and services, consequently impacting social mobility over a life course.
Mobility is often conceptualized as revealed movement and used as an indicator of agency and empowerment. However, not all forms of movement are empowering and reflect agency. Norms can also induce mobility pressures on already time-constrained gendered subjects, e.g. linked to constructions of masculine responsibility for provisioning. The everyday or permanent movements of women and men may therefore also reflect their disempowerment within their households and or communities.
In this panel I invite contributions revisiting the mobility concept by exploring its gendered meanings and power relations, and or interrogating the multiple ways gender and mobility in rural and urban Africa intersect, including causes and effects of gendered mobilities and immobilities.
Topical questions include but are not limited to:
- How can we theorize mobility in a gender sensitive way, which also accounts for other intersecting social identities?
- How do social norms shape patterns of gendered mobility and immobility?
- How are gendered mobilities and immobilities influencing women’s and men’s empowerment and livelihoods in specific contexts?
- What role is there for virtual mobility in relation to this? To what extent can it substitute for physical mobility?
- To what extent should power, agency, identity and subjectivity be considered as not only gendered dimensions relating to mobility but as constituted in mobility/immobility per se?
Approved abstracts panel 8
1. Female immobilities: Care work and fragile social relations in Burkina Faso
Autor: Helle Samuelsen, Associate Professor & Head of Dept. University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
Dependency of long-distance social relations in the form of remittances are becoming increasingly important for rural citizens in Burkina Faso, as in many other West African countries. These relations are, however, rather fragile, particularly for the wives, who are becoming even more immobilized, as they are left with all the everyday responsibilities at home. The often very sporadic contact, they have with their husbands, who may be working for years in other countries, leave them in a void of ‘double uncertainty’. This includes both uncertainties about how to manage the next meal and the next child illness, and relational uncertainties about their position in the household of the absent husband’s family. Based on long-term fieldwork in Burkina Faso including a series of interviews with women ‘staying behind’, I focus on the often implicit, unarticulated and silent care ethics of these women and mothers. The notion of care ethics originates from feminist anthropology, but there is also a strong connectivity to Løgstrup’s conception of the ethical. According to Løgtrup, human life is “not first solitary, and then, as if by accident, lived together with other human beings” (in Fink, 2007). The doing of care, often includes brute materiality and hard work, as stressed by Wilkinson and Kleinman (2016). High prevalence of poor nutrition and infectious diseases such as malaria, pneumonia and diarrhoea becomes a vicious circle, where children constantly are sick, and where mothers constantly have to consider what actions they should take in order to prevent or mitigate the next case of sickness. Hoping that their husbands eventually succeeds as migrant laborers, the wives ‘staying behind’ are in the meantime left in a kind of limbo with a very precarious economy, stripped from possibilities of pursuing educational aspirations, and in a very fragile position within the in-law family.
2. Understanding women’s agency in innovation processes: A case study of hybrid maize in Western Kenya
Authors: Bullock Renee & Tegbaru Amare, International Institute of Tropical Agriculture.
Keywords: Innovation processes, gender, feminist geography, relations, Kenya, maize
Our aim is to understand how innovation processes may create new, alternative spaces for women to express and redefine their agency. We specifically look at improved maize varieties, a key subsistence and cash crop in Western Kenya. We develop a framework that draws on feminist geography, innovation and empowerment literature to contextualize innovation processes, that is, to provide a social and geographic description of rural and peri-urban communities. We use qualitative methods and analyses to describe gender roles, norms, and relations in public and private spaces and discuss how these have, or have not, changed over the last decade. Although women exercise high levels of agency through their participation in more economic activities than a decade ago, men express a loss of agency due to unemployment. Despite these changes, men continue to exercise authority in most decision-making in the household. We then focus on gender relations in activities in innovation processes that include gaining access to knowledge and resources, e.g. land and capital. Women show high levels of mobility through regular attendance in agricultural trainings, which they then use to negotiate innovation-related decisions in the household. However, in married households, men’s ownership of land and access to capital often confers authority over key resources needed to adopt resource intensive hybrid maize varieties. Nevertheless, women substantially contribute their time and capital. We expound on some of the reasons that gender hierarchies persist in the household, including the need to “keep the peace in the household” and to maintain a reputation in the community based on commonly held assumptions of what community members think. We recommend relational approaches to understand gender and to consider the ways in which interdependencies, or linkages between public and private spaces, may support changes in gender relations across space that support women’s and men’s agency.
3. Swallows from the Sahara: Female Migration in Chimamanda Adichie’s Americanah and Chika Unigwe’s On Black Sisters’ Street
Author: Daniel Chukwuemeka, Department of English and Literary Studies, Godfrey Okoye University Enugu, Nigeria.
This study is set out to group Chimamanda Adichie’s Americanah and Chika Unigwe’s On Black Sisters’ Street with comparative reference to how postcolonial experiences propel their female characters into migration. While a number of European and North American species of sparrows are long-distance migrants, the West and South African swallows are non-migratory. The reversal of this avian metaphor in this presentation is a way of asserting that postcolonial African literature has been expanded by migration literature by moving away from the patriarchal stereotype of the female as weak and docile, with their only function being that of child-bearing, rearing and domestic chores, to its introduction of gender, sexuality and class discourse in relation to female migration. Hence the comparative analysis of female migration experiences in both texts gives us a good understanding of how the female protagonists endlessly recreate themselves through their encounters with social complexities and discriminating experiences of being a female, African minority in a foreign land. This results in their identity going beyond the memories of past and reaching a level of maturity or, as Fanon admits, a sort of participating in the creation of a human social world—that is, a world of reciprocal recognition and adventures. The intellectual tool used to analyze the form of migration from female perspectives is postcolonial criticism vis-à-vis the question of identity. The methods employed in the analysis include finding out the motive behind the migration of the female characters, unearthing of the result of such migration, which is diasporic-identity formation, and the investigation of the concepts of in-betweenness, borderless cosmopolitanism and transitory identities, concepts that house the basic characteristics to classify a literary work as the literature of migration. In doing this, we find that the themes and motifs of feminist migration literature and the postcolonial female conditions are creatively intertwined in both texts.
Keywords: female / migration / the diaspora / gender / identity
4. The city as her oyster? Rural-urban migration and the gendering of public space
Author: Elizabeth Dessie, Unit for Human Geography, Department of Economy and Society, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
While feminist geography has, by large, traditionally reflected the Anglo-American experience of womanhood under patriarchal structures, critical and postcolonial theories have expanded these realms to incorporate an understanding of gender and geographies beyond the global North and across spaces that are increasingly reflexive and unendingly intersectional. With urbanisation rates set to skyrocket across sub-Saharan Africa in the coming decades, situating conceptualisations of gender within the social, economic and territorial backdrop of cities is crucial to understanding the processes and histories that form them. Drawing on fieldwork currently being conducted in Addis Ababa, this paper suggests the Ethiopian capital is undergoing a new gendering of public space. This gendering can be described as the artefact of livelihood strategies adopted by a distinct fraction of the urban population - recent rural-urban migrants - who are shifting norms and transforming relations through their spatial practices. By doing so, migrants, in their newly fitted urban stature, are re-producing the economic and social landscape of the streets. The paper leans on early findings and observations of these changes which point to the marginalisation of rural-urban migrant women’s ability to claim the city by reforming the public space into a distinctly male arena, thereby disempowering women through dimensions of hardships which jeopardise their plight for social as well as economic empowerment.
5. Marriage, mobility and migration: reflections on gender relations in the Nigerian society
Author: Paula Morgado, CEI – IUL.
Female Autonomous Migration [FAM] is an expanding phenomenon in the Republic of Niger. It mainly involves poorly educated women who temporarily move from the countryside to the city. Many of them are also married. Their migration enterprises are usually condemned by the society. Like in other Islamized countries, after marriage, female spatial mobility depends on husband’s consent. On the other hand, men are supposed to assume financial responsibilities for their families. In reality, FAM threatens one of the most important social institutions of in Nigerien society – Marriage - by calling into question husbands’ ability to exercise marital authority.
The aim of this paper is to show how MAF may be related to dysfunctionalities existing on women’s marriage, especially when their husbands do not comply with matrimonial agreements. Consequently, it will be argue that FAM is frequently related with economic and social decapitalization and female disempowerment at the rural level. Starting from a perspective that privileges the analysis of local impact of global social forces, it will be shown that although marriage still is the greater vehicle for women social promotion, economic and political and environmental pressures tend to destabilized marital balance, harming mainly women and offspring.
In this context, FAM has become a survival strategy put into practice to cope with the adverse effects caused by marriage dynamics imbalance. Sometimes this temporal decision transforms itself into a definitive solution. FAM is a social phenomenon that tends to reinforce gender inequalities in two crucial ways. First, because women need to provide for their children and themselves, they have problems in boosting their savings. Second, because of social stigma associated with FAM. When divorced women return to marital market, their bargaining power has been impaired, undermining the capacity to find themselves a new suitable husband.
6. The Continuity and Trajectory of Swazi Female Mobility in Perspective
Author: Hlengiwe Portia Dlamini, U. Pretoria, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa.
This paper focuses on the problematic of female mobility in colonial and post-colonial Swaziland, especially after the demise of apartheid within a patriarchal cultural context. With reference to the colonial period, it is argued that unprecedented labour mobility, inaugurated by the mining industry in South Africa, was largely engendered. This mobility was also marked by the unbelievable restrictions placed on the movement of women by the colonial administration, chiefs, husbands, fathers and brothers on patriarchal and cultural grounds. The multiple successful and unsuccessful strategies women employed to circumvent these vexatious restrictions is examined. With reference to the post-colonial period, the author posits that the crumbling of apartheid in the 1990s concurrently facilitated and accelerated the mobility of Swazi women to South Africa. However, more emphasis has been placed in literature, constructed through masculinity and media-friendly lenses, focusing on the circulation of female prostitution rings and women trafficking as the principal feature of female mobility. Using the concept of intersectionality, it is revealed that women professionals, skilled workers, lecturers, and musicians were an important component of female mobility. All women definitely do not belong to the same class and cannot be treated as such. This paper is constructed on critical text analysis, newspapers and interviews.
Keywords: Female mobility, colonial and post-colonial Swaziland; patriarchal and cultural norms, intersectionality.
7. Rethinking gendered mobilities and immobilities: A conceptual framework
Author: Johanna Bergman Lodin, Department of Urban and Rural Development, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden.
In many cultures, social norms surrounding mobility in public spaces add to the physical constraints induced by underdeveloped mobility-scapes by particularly curtailing women’s freedom to move outside their residential compounds and beyond. Marital status, ethnicity and class are examples of other social identities negotiating individual mobility. Constrained mobility may also influence access to important resources and services, consequently impacting social mobility over a life course. At the same time, norms can induce mobility pressures on already time-constrained gendered subjects, e.g. linked to constructions of masculine responsibility for provisioning. Much research on how gender and mobility intersect uses rather narrow (and often implicit) conceptualizations of mobility that only allow for capturing gendered differences in observable daily mobility practices (i.e. revealed movement). In doing so, the opportunity to interrogate the causes and effects of such differences is lost. This effectively de-politicizes mobility and deprives it of its gendered meanings and power relations. Yet, mobility is essentially political and gendered. In this paper, I argue that power, agency, identity and subjectivity are constituted in mobility/immobility per se and that this should also be reflected in how we understand mobility. Building on the many important contributions by especially (feminist) geographers, I frame mobility as being constituted of three interlinked dimensions: movement, access (to opportunity) and ability (to decide in relation to these), and re-emphasize the need to understand mobility as the construction of possibilities for movement more so than actual traffic. This re-conceptualization allows us to theorize mobility in a more gender-sensitive way that transcends simplistic assumptions such as that all forms of (women’s) movement are empowering and reflect agency. To shed empirical light on the theoretical debate, I draw on research from Kenya and Nigeria. The paper can inform both researchers and the theories of change of development practitioners.